“A Taxonomy of Innovation: Country Definitions and Supportive Efforts.”

Donna M. Schaeffer, PhD, Marymount University, Arlington VA 22207
703.284.5718 or email: Donna.schaeffer@marymount.edu

Patrick C. Olson, PhD, National University, San Jose, CA 95128
408.236.1152 or email pubs@aware.vg

Many economists agree that future prospects for growth are based in technology and innovation.

On the positive side, innovative activities can create employment and revenues.

However, innovation needs sustained and coordinated effort to insure that funding is available and intellectual property is protected.

The Economist Intelligence Unit (2009) index defines innovation as the “application of knowledge in a novel way, primarily for economic benefit.”

Table 1. Innovation Index (Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2009)

Table 2. A Taxonomy of Innovation (Source: Adapted from Hod, 1986.)

Gov’t provides

Information, e.g. advice and training

Authority, e.g., regulation, license, patents

Finances, e.g., funding, taxes


e.g., administration

Ministry of Science and Information and Communications Technology, People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Annual National Science and Technology Week


Publicity, education and training programs

Formulate policy


Liason with other countries and international organizations

National Innovation Foundation, India

Database of Innovations


portals and kiosks


domain experts


scouting and information gathering

Intellectual Property Mgt


Micro Venture Innovation Fund


National Innovation Agency, Thailand


Founded 2003









Grants and venture capital

University Business Incubators

The State Agency for Investments and Innovation, Ukraine


Founded 2005


Formulates policy

The State Innovation Finance % Credit Org.



Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, Denmark

Collaboration and dissemination of knowledge

Advises on policy


Business incubators

Office of the Chief Scientist, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Israel

Database of projects

Advocates policy


Intellectual property protection


Technology Incubators

National Technology Agency (TEKES)



Founded 1984

Strategic Centrres for Science, Technology, and Innovation


Database of Innovations




Grants of >500 million Euro


CTI, Switzerland


Founded 1949

Venturelab – an advising and training program


CHF 100 million


Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation


Established as the Association for the Protection of Industrial Property in 1904, renamed in 1947.







Invention Clubs for Youth